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While some increase was noted also in weight, the secular trend in weight was not significant.

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Despite regular attendance to the Center, increase in head circumference as well as in weight and height showed a lag at 6, 9, and 12 months of age, respectively. Genetic ayak anatomisi relating to both size and ayak anatomisi of growth are known to exist among different populations, indicating a need for local growth standards.

On the other hand, it is also well known that poor nutrition and other unfavorable environmental factors have an important impact on growth.


Since a significant proportion of children in the developing regions of the world cannot escape the effect of a suboptimal environment on growth, the anthropometric reference standards in such regions need to be derived from selected samples of the population who provide their children with the requirements for optimal growth.

With the above considerations and aiming to establish local norms for Turkish children, Neyzi et al 3839 reported heights and weights in healthy Istanbul children of ages between 1 month and 18 years girls and boys of high socioeconomic level born between the years and For infants, another criterion for inclusion in the series was periodic visits to a pediatrician.

Longitudinal data for children up to 8 years were collected retrospectively from the files of ayak anatomisi pediatricians.

Data on children from 9 years on were based on measurements obtained in schools and were cross-sectional. Exact chronological ayak anatomisi was known in all these subjects and all measurements were performed using standard equipment and methodology.

Since the means and standard deviation SD values were derived from measurements taken at exact ayak anatomisi or within negligible distances from exact chronological ages, correction of the SD was not attempted.


The percentile curves fitting the points obtained as described above were assessed in three different ways: The growth charts prepared by Neyzi et al 38 have been in use in the assessment of Turkish children living in Ayak anatomisi or in Europe for nearly three decades.

In a study 40children of Turkish emigrant workers in Sweden who were born and reared in Sweden were compared ayak anatomisi those who were born in Turkey and emigrated in childhood, as well as with Swedish children and with Turkish children of well-off families in Turkey and it was found ayak anatomisi Turkish children who were born and reared in Sweden were shorter than Swedish children, but also shorter than the children of well-off families in Turkey.

Those who had emigrated to Sweden in childhood were short on arrival but showed significant catch up.

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This study demonstrates the importance of environmental effects on growth. Most of these studies were performed ayak anatomisi pediatricians ayak anatomisi aimed to show differences in body size in children of different socioeconomic levels or in those living in urban as opposed to rural settings.

Studies on secular trend in Turkish children are limited. Neyzi et al 61by reviewing available data on Turkish children in the past 50 ayak anatomisi, reported significant differences in height for age in Istanbul city children.

As also observed in other countries, secular trend is mainly due to improved growth performance of children from lower socioeconomic classes 6263 No significant change in sitting ayak anatomisi was found.

Among the several studies on heights and weights conducted on the Turkish pediatric population sincestudies by two groups of researchers, those working in Istanbul and in Kayseri, deserve mention, since both groups worked on study groups of adequate size ayak anatomisi composition to constitute a reference sample, and both groups applied standard and up-to-date methodology for measurements and analysis of the results.

The results of the two age groups were combined to derive the updated reference percentile growth charts for weight, height and head circumference and for body mass index BMI in Turkish children Weight measurements and BMI results indicate that Turkish children are prone to be become overweight ayak anatomisi an early age on and that obesity reaches significant proportions starting in prepubertal years.

Another noteworthy finding was the relatively increased head circumference values as compared to western standards, which were thought to reflect a genetic characteristic, since the study group included only healthy and well-nourished subjects.

The studies on Kayseri children were conducted on healthy children and consisted of boys and girls aged 6 to 18 years and of ayak anatomisi and girls aged 0 to 84 months 72 Height and weight measurements were ayak anatomisi, and percentile growth charts to serve as references were constructed.

In ayak anatomisi age groups, they were slightly shorter and of lower weight than the Istanbul children.

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Some members of the Kayseri group, Malkoc et al 74studied the effect of altitude on height, weight and BMI of children aged years and reported that children residing at higher altitudes were shorter and leaner than their Ayak anatomisi or Kayseri counterparts.

However, the authors considered socioeconomic level also as a possible factor influencing the results. SinceTDHS has been conducted every 5 years and provides data on samples representative of the whole of the Turkish ayak anatomisi.

These data show very significant improvements ayak anatomisi social as well as in health indicators over time.