HISTORY OF COMPUTER SCIENCE PDF

The abacus “the first automatic computer” is the earliest known tool of computing. • It was thought to have been invented in Babylon, circa BCE. Napier played a key role in the history of computing. Besides being a clergyman and philosopher he was a gifted mathematician and in he published his great. Brief History of Computer Science. Ancestor of computers. Birth of the ultimate computer. Birth of computer science. Recent scientific breakthroughs.


HISTORY OF COMPUTER SCIENCE PDF

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HISTORY OF COMPUTER SCIENCE PDF


The Evolution of Computer Science in One Infographic

Finally, lest you still feel that the QWERTY keyboard is an unduly harsh punishment that's history of computer science sent to try us, it's worth remembering that the early users had a much harder time than we do, not the least that they couldn't even see what they were typing!

The first typewriters struck the paper from the underside, which obliged their operators to raise the carriage whenever they wished to see what had just been typed, and so-called "visible-writing" machines didn't become available until Dorr Eugene Felt was born in Chicago in In he made his "Comptometer", the first calculator where numbers were entered by pressing keys history of computer science opposed to being dialled in or similar awkward methods.

HISTORY OF COMPUTER SCIENCE PDF

A step towards automated computing was the development of punched cards, which were first successfully used with computers in by Herman Hollerith and James Powers. They both were working for the US Census Bureau and John Billings made a comment to Herman Hollerith, a nineteen year old engineer, that he felt that there ought history of computer science be some mechanical way of doing this job.

History of computer science a way of using the principle of the Jacquard loom, where holes in the card regulate the pattern of weave.

They went to work on this idea and the first machine they devised used paper strips with holes punched on them according to a code, similar to a player piano.

A Very Brief History of Computer Science

The paper strip was history of computer science to be impractical, so in a punched card was devised. Hollerith worked out a system that a person's name, age, sex, and other relevant information could be coded by punching holes in a card. It said that the size of the card is the size history of computer science the dollar bill because when Hollerith was designing the card, not knowing what size to make it, he pulled out a one dollar bill and traced it.

However there is a controversy about this point and some affirm that they are much smaller. The card was divided into separate areas 20 rows of 12 punches.

They developed devices that could read the information that had been punched into the cards automatically, without human help. Because of this, reading errors were reduced dramatically, workflow increased, and, most importantly, stacks of punched cards could be used as easily accessible memory of almost unlimited history of computer science.

HISTORY OF COMPUTER SCIENCE PDF

history of computer science Furthermore, different problems could be stored on different stacks of cards, accessed when needed and easily transported. Those punched cards were read electronically: Hollerith organized the Tabulating Machine Company to promote the commercial use of his machine.

Twenty-eight years later, inafter several take-overs the company became known as International Business Machines IBM.

Inthe legendary American inventor History of computer science Alva Edison publicly exhibited his incandescent electric light bulb for the first time.

Edison's light bulbs employed a conducting filament mounted in a glass bulb from which the air was evacuated leaving a vacuum.

History of Computer Science

Passing electricity through the filament caused it to heat up enough to become incandescent and radiate light, while the vacuum prevented the filament from oxidizing and burning up. Edison continued to experiment with his light bulbs and, infound that he could detect electrons flowing through the vacuum from the lighted filament to a metal plate mounted inside the bulb.

This discovery subsequently became known as the Edison Effect. Edison did not develop this particular finding any further, but an English physicist, John Ambrose Fleming, discovered that the History of computer science Effect history of computer science also be used to detect radio waves and to convert them to electricity.

Fleming went on to develop a two-element vacuum tube known as diode. Inthe American inventor Lee de Forest introduced a third electrode called the grid into the vacuum tube.

History of Computers - A Brief Timeline of Their Evolution

The resulting triode could be used as both an amplifier and a switch, and many of the early radio transmitters were built by de Forest history of computer science these triodes. De Forest's triodes revolutionized the field of broadcasting and were destined to do much more, because their ability to act as switches was to have a tremendous history of computer science on digital computing.

II, And mankind created the computer Inwith the assistance of two colleagues at MIT, the American scientist, engineer, and politician Vannevar Bush designed an analog computer that could solve simple equations. This device, which Bush dubbed a Product Intergraph, was subsequently built by one of his students.

Bush continued to develop his ideas and, inbuilt a bigger version that he called a Differential Analyzer.