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The two dominant commercialized waveform types of inverters as of are modified sine wave and square wave. There are two basic designs for inverter dc ac household plug-in voltage from a lower-voltage DC source, the first of which uses a switching boost converter to produce a higher-voltage DC and then converts to AC.

The second method converts DC inverter dc ac AC at battery level and uses a line-frequency transformer to create the output voltage.

Square wave output can produce "humming" when connected to audio equipment and is generally unsuitable for sensitive inverter dc ac.

Sine wave Sine wave[ edit ] A power inverter device which produces a multiple step sinusoidal Inverter dc ac waveform is referred to as a sine wave inverter. To more clearly distinguish the inverters with outputs of much less inverter dc ac than the modified sine wave three step inverter designs, the manufacturers often use the phrase pure sine wave inverter.

Almost all consumer grade inverters that are sold as a "pure sine wave inverter" do not produce a smooth sine wave output at all, [4] just a less choppy output than the square wave two step and modified sine wave three step inverters.

## How DC/AC Power Inverters Work | HowStuffWorks

However, this is not critical for most electronics as they deal with the output quite well. Where power inverter devices substitute for standard line power, a inverter dc ac wave output is desirable because many electrical products are engineered to work best with a sine wave AC power source.

The standard electric utility provides a sine wave, typically with minor imperfections but sometimes with significant distortion. Sine wave inverters with more than three steps in the wave output inverter dc ac more complex and have significantly higher cost than a modified sine wave, with only three steps, or square wave one step types of the same power handling.

AC motors directly operated on non-sinusoidal power may produce extra heat, may have different speed-torque characteristics, or may produce more audible noise than when running on sinusoidal power.

Modified sine wave[ edit ] The modified sine wave output of such an inverter dc ac is the sum of two square waves one of which is phase shifted 90 degrees relative to the other.

## DC/AV Inverters · DC/AC Pure Sine Wave Inverters · Schaefer

The result is three level waveform with equal inverter dc ac of zero volts; peak positive volts; zero volts; peak negative volts and then zero volts. This sequence is repeated.

The resultant wave very roughly resembles the shape of a sine wave. Most inexpensive consumer power inverters produce a modified sine wave rather inverter dc ac a pure sine wave. The waveform in commercially available modified-sine-wave inverters resembles a square wave but with a pause during the polarity reversal.

## Power inverter - Wikipedia

Generally, the peak voltage to Inverter dc ac voltage ratio does not maintain the same relationship as for a sine wave. The DC bus voltage may be actively regulated, or the "on" and "off" times can be modified to maintain the same RMS value output up to the DC bus voltage inverter dc ac compensate for DC bus voltage variations.

The ratio of on to off time can be adjusted to vary the RMS voltage while maintaining a constant frequency with a technique called pulse width modulation PWM. The generated gate pulses are given to each switch in accordance with the developed pattern to obtain the desired output.

Inverter dc ac spectrum in the output depends on the width of the pulses and the modulation frequency.

When operating induction motors, voltage harmonics are usually not of concern; however, harmonic distortion in inverter dc ac current waveform introduces additional heating and can produce pulsating torques. Items with a switch-mode power supply operate almost entirely without problems, but if the item has a mains transformer, this can overheat depending on how marginally it is rated.

However, the load may operate less efficiently owing to the harmonics associated with a modified sine wave and produce a humming noise during operation. This also affects the efficiency of inverter dc ac system as a whole, since the manufacturer's nominal conversion efficiency does not account for harmonics.

### DC-AC Pure Sine Wave Inverters

Therefore, pure sine wave inverters may provide inverter dc ac higher efficiency than modified sine wave inverters. However, they may be quite noisy. A series LC filter tuned to the fundamental frequency may help.